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1. Concept, origin and essence of money

Competence to be formed: OK-1; OK-4; OK-6; OK-9; PK-1; PK-4; PK-8; PK-9

Results of development:

To know:

  • 1) history, concept and an origin of money;
  • 2) forms and kinds of money;
  • 3) functions of money;
  • 4) scientific-theoretical material about origin and essence of money and monetary relations.

Be able:

  • 1) to use scientific sources for the analysis essence of money and monetary relations;
  • 2) to analyze historical aspect of development of forms, types and kinds of money;


  • 1) methodology of the scientific analysis of historical sources about an origin of money and monetary relations;
  • 2) skills of independent work on information selection, a choice of methods of the analysis taking into account research tasks in view.

Educational methods

Lectures 2 hours

Practical training 4 hours

Independent work 6 hours

Forms of current control - Poll, the decision of problems, testing

Concept and origin of money. Money as a universal equivalent. The commodity nature of money Consumption cost (utility) and exchange value the goods. Development of the contradictions concluded in the goods. Development of an exchange and change of forms of cost. Casual exchanges of the goods. The simple or casual form of cost. The first public division of labor and a regular exchange. The developed (full) form of cost. The second public division of labor. Isolation of trade and the third public division of labor. The general form of cost. A universal equivalent and its historical forms. The monetary form of cost. Difference of the monetary form of cost from the general. Occurrence of commodity-money relations. The fourth public division of labor and occurrence of the international division of labor. Barter, the local international markets, the uniform world market. The international exchange of the goods and services, international trade, occurrence of collective money (regional and world currencies).

Forms, types and kinds of money. Forms of money and their evolution. Piece money Historical examples of piece money and an explanation of their inconveniences in circulation. Metallic currency as the most convenient form of money. Properties of precious metals: uniformity, divisibility portability a keeping, high cost in small volume. A coin and its requisites. End of transformation of money from commodity in the metal. Types of money: high-grade and defective. Stamping of coins as the closing stage of formation of high-grade money. The basic properties of high-grade money. Self-regulation of quantity of high-grade active money. Processes of formation and evolution of defective money. The erased and false coins. Damage of money. Paper money. Formation and evolution of paper money. Economic sense of paper money and the mechanism of their issue. Deficiency and state budget financing. Inflationary character of issue of paper money. Paper money and the state securities: transformation mechanisms. Credit money and their economic sense. Nonbank credit money, bills and checks. Bank credit money banknotes, deposits poste restante (non-cash depositary money). Processes of non-materialization money and occurrence of virtual (electronic) money. Evolution of money (transformation) from high-grade to defective, from cash to non-cash (virtual).

Functions and a role of money. Sights of economic schools at functions of money. Three functions of money (Edvin, Dollan, Makkonell, Brju): a currency, a measure of value, a store of value. Four functions of money (Miller, Van Huz): a currency, means of preservation of cost, a tally (measure of value), an instrument of payment. Five functions of money (Marx): a measure of value, a currency, accumulation means, an instrument of payment, world money. Money as a universal measuring instrument, a measure of value. General cost an equivalent. Objective possibility of performance by money of function of a universal equivalent: the specific goods possessing exchange value, possibility of ideality of money by comparison of the goods at cost. The goods price. A standard of price. Distinctions between money as a measure of value and money as a standard of price. Features of a modem standard of price after end of processes gold. Concept of a tally. Absence costs at modern forms of money. Effect of currency replacement. Barter barter and its features. Coupons and coupon trade.

Money as a currency. Interaction with function of a measure of value and historical process of formation of money. A reality of money in this function. Fugacity of intermediary in trade barter transactions. The formula ofthe commodity reference and an intermediary role of money. Differences of function of money as measures of value from function of money as instruments of payment. Occurrence of defective money. Function of a currency and overcoming of individual, time and spatial borders of an exchange.

Money as accumulation means. Accumulation principal causes. Creation of treasures and savings at the metal reference. Savings of cost and riches accumulation. Savings of incomes. Occurrence of bank system and stock market, insurance, pension, hedge, stabilization, reserve and savings funds. Sovereign funds of riches of the future generations. Value of function of accumulation in modern economy. Monetary riches and the monetary capital. Risk of loss of riches (capital) and methods of their insurance in the developed market economies.

Money as an instrument of payment. The reasons of occurrence of installments of payment in goods exchange operations (credit). Money as an instrument of payment at credit occurrence, at clearing settlements, at repayment of all kinds of promissory notes. Credit money: the bill, a banknote, the check, credit plastic cards, virtual (electronic) credit money.

World money. Money as general payment both purchasing means and a general international embodiment of public riches. Balances of international payments. National international reserves and national wealth funds. Evolution of function of world money: from gold to national and collective currencies. Interrelation of functions of money.

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