10. The job market

Questions for Discussion

  • 1. Why do people work?
  • 2. How do governments combat unemployment? Why is unemployment a threat to society?
  • 3. Does a modern job market offer many opportunities?
  • 4. What professions are most popular in the present day economic situation?
  • 5. Are all jobs equally prestigious and rewarding?
  • 6. How is the status of work changing in modern societies? What are the reasons for these changes?
  • 7. What is the motivating force in choosing a job?
  • 8. What are the main stages in the process of getting a job?
  • 9. How do people in a job-seeking situation sell themselves?
  • 10. What is a job interview? What questions are asked there?
  • 11. How should people behave during a job interview?
  • 12. Can you give tips for their behaviour?

Target Vocabulary

motivating force

job-seeking situation


skilled/semiskilled/unskilled job

full-time employment

Careers Advisory Office

part-time job

a job interview

supplementary benefits

a job description

redundancy pay

work experience

unemployment benefit

curriculum vitae

job satisfaction


become redundant

job search site

Vocabulary Practice

Exercise 1. Use your target vocabulary to replace these explanations.

1. the money people get in the situation when they have to leave their jobs because there is

no more work available for them_

2. the money provided by the government to people who need financial help because they

are unemployed_

  • 3. a written description of the exact work and responsibilities of a job
  • 4. a written record of your education and the jobs you have done that is sent to the employer when you are applying for a job_
  • 5. offering one’s services without being forced to do it
  • 6. a job which doesn’t require your presence during the whole day or week

Exercise 2. Complete these sentences using your target vocabulary in the appropriate form.

  • 1. Applications with a full... and two references should reach the principal by June 12,h.
  • 2. ... his services as a programmer in the company gave him work experience.
  • 3. School leavers or university graduates may seek expert advice on their potential employment in the ...
  • 4. In order to cut the expenses the company decided to replace skilled machine operators by... ones.
  • 5. After studying the candidate’s CV the Personnel Manager invited him to a ...
  • 6. One of the ways of finding a job is using ...

Tips for Topic Development

Text 1

Why do people work? Some work for money. Others work for self-fulfillment. Still others work for the sake of work itself. Job satisfaction plays a great role.

Some people think that the concept of job satisfaction is in some ways a luxury and only relevant to industrialized societies. The thing is that in developing countries, work is for the majority the only means of survival. People take semi-skilled and unskilled jobs for the sake of money. But there is little doubt that the energy crisis, economic instability and microchip technology are going to revolutionize work as we know it today. The status of work may change, from simple and trivial jobs to more challenging ones in which one can contribute to society and fulfill one’s personal aspirations.

The traditional attitude towards work makes full-time employment and the desire for promotion the central motivating force in an adult’s life. Should anyone lose his job and become temporarily unemployed, he can and must find another one; anyone who is full-time unemployed is a failure and a scrounger, as he is then living off the State or, in other words, off other taxpayers’ money.

In order to find a new job, research the market thoroughly. Use job search sites listing employers’ and agencies’ vacancies, for example www.hh.ru or www.staffwell.ru, says Anna Velskaya in an interview to the Well team. It is important not to get complacent, nor to become demoralized. If you know exactly what you want, sooner or later you will find it. And there is one more advice. Theodore Roosevelt said:” Whenever you are asked if you can do a job, tell ‘em “Certainly I can”. Then get busy and find out how to do it”.

A recent survey published in the consumer magazine Money Which? tried to discover how a variety of people felt about their work. The most significant question asked was this:

“If you won ?250,000 on the ‘pools’, would you carry on with your present job?’ 35% of those surveyed said they would continue full-time, 18% said they would but part-time, and 47% said they wouldn’t.

Agree or disagree with these statements.

  • 1. A person who is not full-time employed is a failure in our culture.
  • 2. All people work for money.
  • 3. The concept of job satisfaction is a luxury in Russia.
  • 4. The Russians won’t take unskilled jobs for the sake of money.
  • 5. Nowadays people tend to work more to fulfill their own aspirations.
  • 6. Many people in Russia wouldn’t work if they had sufficient money to live on.

Text 2

Getting a Job

In Britain there is a special service for school leavers, The Careers Advisory Service, which helps young people who are looking for their first jobs. Careers officers give practical advice on interview techniques, application forms, letters, pay.

The Interview

put in about

You’ve got an interview for a job — good! To do well at an interview you need to some thought first.

The employer wants to know if you are the person he wants, so you’ll be asked yourself. Think about it now:

What do I do well?

What are my good points? Why would I like this job? Spare-time interests? What is my family like?

School activities? School subjects? Previous work? Saturday job?

What do I like doing and why? What do I not like doing and why?

You will want to ask questions too.

The job itself?



Further Education? Conditions?

Can I see where I would be working? Hours?


Write your questions down and take them with you. Before the Interview

  • 1. Find out what you can about the firm.
  • 2. Find out the interviewer’s name and telephone number.
  • 3. Find out where the interview is.
  • 4. Find out how long it will take to get there.
  • 5. Make sure you know what the job involves.
  • 6. Dress to look clean and tidy.

At the Interview

  • 1. Do arrive early. Phone if you’re held up.
  • 2. Do try to smile.
  • 3. Do show interest in the job and ask questions.
  • 4. Do be polite.
  • 5. Don’t panic, even if faced by more than one person.
  • 6. Don’t slouch around and look bored.
  • 7. Don’t smoke or chew.
  • 8. Don’t give one word answers or say you don’t care what to do.
  • (an extract from a leaflet which is given to young people by Dorset Careers Service)

Say which of the statements below are true and which are false.

  • 1. The Careers Advisory Service is a special service for University graduates who look for a good job.
  • 2. Interviewees are not allowed to ask questions at an interview.
  • 3. Candidates must wear modest clothes in order to produce the desired impression on employers.
  • 4. Candidates mustn’t slouch around the office before the interview.
  • 5. Candidates should give extended answers to the interviewer’s questions.
  • 6. Candidates can’t lose control of their emotions.
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